The Chief Imperial Architect Mimar Sinan Bin Abdülmennan and Need For a True Islamic Architecture in Modern Times

In a poem describing Istanbul, Nedim wrote:

"This city Stanbul is a champion without equal,

It is worth more than any foreign land.

It is a jewel between two seas,

Worthy of comparison with the world-enlightening sun."

There is an architect who imprinted his seal on İstanbul, the city justly described by Nedim as unrivaled by any foreign land. This architect, too, is "worthy of comparison with the world-enlightening sun." Described in his time as "Ayn-ı a'yân-ı mühendisîn, Zeyn-i erkân-ı müessisîn, Mimâr-ı sultâni, Muallim-i hâkâni, Üstâd-ı esâtizetü'z-zemân, Reîs-i cehâbizeti'd-devrân, Pesendîde-i cihan, Mîmar-ı bî-akran, Sermîmarân, and his name is Sinan bin Abdülmennân.1

Great men are born from great peoples.  Mt. Everest is a peak on the Himalayas, not in the Gor Valley. The sixteenth century was an age when Ottoman civilization's classicism was at its apex in all branches of knowledge, literature and art.  Due to the richness and high level of the culture, everything in society was in a state of readiness, in a time when the Ottoman civilization was at its summit, Mimar Sinan was an architectural explosion.

The public consciousness which was being refined for centuries and the stable structure of society enabled every part of the existing culture to fulfill the other parts' needs and to become a whole. The strength of the government and its pure structure being reflected in architecture, the center of this consciousness took shape architecturally. Transforming Constantinople into İstanbul with his 316 buildings, the great Sinan, by using the possibilities the government provided him during a period of cultural apex, and by sifting again the limited materials and techniques that had developed over time, attempted every kind of architectural possibility with sensitivity, skill, pleasure, emotions and great estheticism.

It is obvious that the great Sinan was a genius of architecture.  But it is also evident that even the greatest talent does not produce works by itself; great works are based on sound training, experience and opportunities.  It can be seen by the Imperial Architecture Guild that in the sixteenth century almost all branches of art, particularly architecture, were incorporated into organizations. These developments were suddenly implemented by the Ottoman government. It is easier to explain Sinan's period in Ottoman architecture in view of this great institution, its organization and its place in the central system.

It is the sixteenth century... Cameras and slides have not yet been invented.  Neither have the various techniques of perspective been discussed.  But by means of the great Sinan's tremendous imagination and memory, after everything he saw memorized and digested in the crucible of manifestation, a new work with a new composition and totally different identity would come into existence. Throughout his life until the age of fifty he carefully studied works that he saw in places he travelled to on military campaigns.  Purifying and correcting this knowledge and esthetic together with his natural creativity, Sinan reached a compound level of consciousness.  According to widely accepted tradition, he produced his first work at this age.

An inclination toward his style can be easily seen in architectural works up to the time of Sinan. By carefully separating some architectural experiments from the Seljuk Period, Beylikler Period and early Ottoman Period, a definite architectural wholeness can be found even though the relationship between the part and its whole had not yet been fully established.  Monumental buildings with a central plan like Edirne Üç Şerefeli and the Bayezid Mosque had been built. The master/apprentice relationship had formed a chain which Turkish-Islamic architecture had developed.  If important buildings of this architecture are put in chronological order, a natural historical evolution toward perfection can be seen rather than a sudden development caused by external influences such as the Hagia Sophia. Thus as a result of the power of the traditions  which had been filtered spiritually and by time, all these influences-and experience were sorted once again by Sinan's hand and the architectural  work began to form an observable plastic whole even to the smallest detail.  Sinan's work is the apex of the natural historical evolution of Turkish/Islamic architecture from the aspects of the architectural style and special integrity. The architectural esthetic, plastic integrity and central plan concept which Sinan strove for in all his works was attained in its most perfect expression in the Edirne Selimiye Mosque.

Within this great chain of interconnections it would be impossible to examine even a work belonging to someone else in complete isolation from Sinan.  In view of all this, it is possible to speak of a Sinan Period looking, on the one hand, at the "person" and, on the other hand, at the "possibility and impact".2As an artist Sinan was raised in the most propitious time and circumstances and worked under extremely favorable conditions. As a superior organizer and valuable teacher at the head of a large construction organization, he became the Chief Architect of the Imperial Architecture Guild. The total building power of the architect, master, assistant and apprentice were contained in this organization. Of course it is not possible to say that all of the close to five-hundred works which were built throughout the country under its auspices were personally controlled by Sinan. These works were planned in İstanbul and then sent elsewhere to be implemented by the architects and masters there.  In buildings in the country some of the local techniques and the imperfections in the measurements' proportions and equilibrium support this idea. This axis of activity lasted for more than fifty years. Those who wanted to add something new had to forego some part of the structure which had become classicized.  Finally a new architectural style which would eventually rebel against itself, beginning with small changes, emerged in the Tulip Period. The skeloton has remained the same, but the costumes have continued to change up to our day.

In the works that the great architect personally supervised, besides the building's perfect structure and construction, it is possible to see such beatiful proportion and clever solutions in the architectural elements and detail that even without a thorough examination, the architect's artistic power and sound thought are understood.

Mimar Sinan

The foundation of the Süleymaniye Mosque is a system of gridirons which can easily be walked in. Just as from these paths in the foundation all the depots which distribute water to all the annexes can be approached, at the same time in the middle of the mosque floor above these paths by opening the wooden covers of the vents, a kind of climatization is provided.  Unfortunately today some of these have been completely abandoned while others are covered with stone lids.  When these covers are opened the ensuing air current is amazing.  Under the lower part of the stone foundation, wooden grids of 70-80 cm. thick "horasan"s have been added, serving as crossbeams throughout the whole foundation system.  By. means of this type of foundation, the building has been made safe from earthquake.

In my opinion, Sinan's original works in the field of water engineering are as important as the buildings and mosques he built.  Sinan's works range from bridges to mosques and water canals to dams and include every type of construction. Even by today's standards with our technical knowledge and knowhow, some of his solutions in water engineering are extraordinary.  He not only perfected the known in everything he touched, but he also skillfully invented the unknown. The great architect Sinan handled everything so well and in such a becoming fashion that neither did his engineering make up spoil his architecture nor did his architectural nature lead him to ignore engineering.3

As Goethe said regarding the selection and use of building materials, "architecture is frozen music". Just like in musical patterns and modes, there is harmony among the architectural elements and their repetition. According to the Chinese philosopher Tao-Te, the purpose of architecture is the space created by the walls of the building. Architectural space and the ambiance it creates for man provide an emotional and spiritual balance. Each of Sinan's works is a monument of proportion and relationship... each space and volume are compositions of equilibrium. Unparalled in his profession, manifest in his accomplishments, his every line is familiar to the spirit, and his every building is unique.

According to Sinan's words as recorded by Saî Çelebi in his book Tezkîretü'l-Bünyan4, when Sultan Süleyman decided to bring water to İstanbul, he asked Sinan how water was previously brought from Kırkçeşme Waters.  When Sinan gave an historical account, the Sultan replied, "Every branches of art has its master and every Bistûn has its Ferhad.5 I must cosult with this impressive architect.  His work needed, not his knowledge." He then ordered the construction of the water works from Sinan. The practical-minded Sinan, to whom the arrangements were left without interference, was in the service of an artistic sultan as well...


Sinan became the miraculous builder of builders during the Classical Ottoman Period. The great Sinan formulated the architectural and static elements of classical Ottoman architecture.  When considering the width of the spatial  openings  and  the  height  of  the buildings, it is impossible to accept that such thin cross-beams could be the result of trial and error or    reliance on experience.  In a period when static formulation and calculation of vaults and frames was unknown, there must have been an intelligible unit of measure. This unit together with architectural proportion and balance, like determining today's cement column/cross­beam, which gives static balances and provides endurance, which shapes the behavior of the building during an earthquake, known at the time as the "architectural inspiration" is the width of the tops of the columns.

This architectural units is divided into 9 parts and then each part is separated again to 4. Also the architectural unit is divided by two, one of which is large and the other small, and the two limited values are chosen.The proportion resulting from this division is 6/9 and 5.5/9 which are very close to the golden mean. 6The height of the columns, the spaciousness of arches, the lines and width of the planes, the frame of the vault etc. are all arranged taking this measure into consideration. For example, the diameter of the column's lower part is 6/9 and the upper part is 5.5/9.The height of the columns are found by the following formula:



                        h column= [(6/9) (architectural unit)] [(k=10………18) (r column)]


For small buildings with light roofs like pavilions and fountains the architectural unit 6/9 is multiplied up to 26 times the radius. The number should not be less than 12 radii. The height of the top of the column including the band is equal to the diameter. The foot of the column is different. The architectural unit should not be more than 3/9 or less than 1/9. The architectural unit should not be more than 3/9 or less than 1/9.The spaciousness of the arches is calculated as 1/2 of the height of the top of the columns.

The elements of the Ottoman Architecture are studied in three different categories: "mîmarî-î mahrutî" (conical architecture), "mîmarî-i müstevî" (plane architecture) and "mîmarî-î mücevherî" (ornamentation architecture),each of whose proportion and ornamentation are different. "Mîmarî-î mahrutî" is used basically in the lower levels of mosques or in plain buildings.The architectural unit 6 is used for the height of the columns including the tops. Sinan used the "mîmarî-î müstevî" in external projections or underground areas in which no ornamentation was used. Using the architectural unit 10 for the height of the columns including the tops and base of the columns, it was never used in small buildings. "Mîmarî-î mücevherî" which matured under the architect Hayreddin and found its final form in Sinan, was Ottoman Architecture's most perfect form. This style was used in places where grandeur and grace were desired. Using of the body of the mosque. Outside the eight columns which carry the dome are clearly obvious around the dome's periphery.

The Kaaba is a divine symbol of spiritual guidance which reminds man, who should be closed to his creator, of the mystery and purpose of his creation and which suggests to man that he must not become a stranger to his place of origin. Like the "ney" (reed pipe) which complains of separation from original reed bed, the Kaaba is a sacred structure and a sign from the other world, full of profound meanings of divine unity and power.

In Fusûs ül-Hikem 8 it is stated, “The essence of everything is water. Can't you see how the Throne is built on water? Because the universe came from water and rose above water. Thus water is preserved under the Throne". Here the Throne means the totality of the material world. This is a very important point. The floor of the Kaaba which is 25 cm. high and projects 30 cm. outward is called a "şadırvan" (fountain of water).9 The purpose of a fountain is water. In Selimiye there is a fountain just under the projected center point of the dome.

According to Abdulkerim Ceylî in his book Insan-ı Kâmil10, the Kaaba or "beyt-i mâ'mur" means a constructed house. It is such a place that Allah made it special to Himself. For this reason He raised it from the earth to the sky. Man's heart is similar to this because man's heart is the abode of Allah. Everything that is in man's material body is a mosque-spirit, intelligence, heart, etc. In this world man's body is like the Throne. The absolute Throne, alI the pieces of which  make a mosque, is the statue and body of the world. The Throne is the universal Body.

If we examine the proportions in the Süleymaniye and Selimiye Mosques in line with this knowledge, we encounter these measurements: The diameter of the circle which passes through the centers of the eight bases which support Selimiye's dome is 45 arşın.11The edge of the dome is 45 arşın from the ground; the minaret is 66 arşın from there. In Süleymaniye the height to the base of the dome is 45 arşın from the ground; the height to the top of the dome is 66 arşın. In the ebced system the number corresponds to "man" and 66 to "Allah". Şeyh Galib wrote;

Look benignly to yourself, you are the essence of the world, The apple of the universe's eye, you are man.

Sinan expressed this same idea in his architecture especially the spiral and every form of ornamentation, it was not used in small buildings except in their interiors. There were rules according to where and how these were to be used. For example, "Mîmarî-î mücevherî" was used above "mîmar-î müstevî". Thus architectural integrity was maintained down to the smallest detail.

To the degree that the scholar draws close to art and to the degree that the artist draws close to knowledge do they find perfection. Because nature itself is divine art.

Praise of the art refers to the artist,

Denigration of the art refers to the artist.

Nature and art are like two lovers adoring each other in wonder. Architecture is not just the art of building; at the same time it is an art of composition and compounds. Most of the measurements Sinan used are correlated to the golden mean which is taken from nature.

The silhouette of the Süleymaniye Mosque ,which exemplifies the great architect's mature stage, is plain and balanced. The 52 degree angle expresses calm and nobility. The central dome is superbly in harmony with everything around it. The building gradually rises and culminates in uniqueness. The relationship between half of the central dome and the other domes is an extraordinary example of the tasawwuf mystery "multiplicity in unity, unity in multiplicity". Multiplicity becoming unity and unity returning to multiplicity is manifested in a chain of unlimited beauty. The great architect Sinan is an artist who identified with, digested and expressed in his art all the values of the Turkish-Islamic world.

In his masterwork the great Sinan, by putting the muezzin gallery just under the center and projection point of the dome, made the whole mosque symbolize the heavens and the universe, the gallery being the Kaaba under the heavens where Bilal-i Habeşi read the first call the prayer. The projection out from the square plan in the form of a half circle represents the "El-Hatim" half circle shape next to the Kaaba.

It is stated in the Holy Qur'an, “And the angels will be on its sides, and eight will that day bear the throne of thy lord above them."(69/17)Also a tradition of the prophet states, They are four today. On Doomsday Allah will reinforce them with the other four angels and they will became eight”. It is written in the Marifetname,7  "There are four Hamele-i arş, the angels who bear up the Throne of God. On Doomsday four more great angels will be created to make eight Hamale-i Arş”. In Selimiye the central dome symbolizes the Throne. Four of the supports carrying the dome are free-standing. The other four in back of the qibla are attached to the walls.

In both the Selimiye and Süleymaniye Mosques the minarets close to the dome are 92 arşın high. In ebced 92 corresponds to the name "Muhammed". The minarets in the corners of the Süleymaniye courtyard are 66 arşın high which corresponds to the name "Allah".

The modern Turkish man is experiencing an identity crisis. While seeking a means of salvation from the "culture blockade", he should ask, "who were we then, and who are we now?" Sinan, one of the builders of unequalled civilization, along with his masterpieces like Süleymaniye and Selimiye should act as sources of ardor and strength for our renewal.

Islamic civilization does not reckon this world as 'consumptible' and 'manipulatable' world. In contrast to its very creation, making the world subject of consumption deteroirates it to a toy at the hands of human mind and modern technology. Indeed, Islam defines man and the world as 'twin', implicating that both have the same origin and same creation. Therefore, the mind that contradicts the creation does not deserve the name "mind'; it is the cruelty and empty-headedness that disturbs the creation. Modern culture is stigmatized with consumption of nature. Islamic culture, just opposite to modernity, reads the world as subject for contemplation, not for consumption; looks at it as a mirror reflecting the beauties of Creator. Morever, subject of contemplation is not the world itself; the embroideries on the mirror of world and the innumerable manifestations of eternal truth (hakikah) reverberating on those embroideries. Every piece of these embroideries is a sign, a verse indicating creative art of Creator. Therefore, things themselves are not subject for contemplation; those continuous creative maneuvers manifesting on them are deserve the contemplation. Contemplation necessitates an act of glorification, namely all things should be freed of all defects, all transient and inconstant attributes. Only after we have exalted the 'mirror' above and far from all material properties, defects and faults, contemplation on things would possible.

Glorification lends Muslim artist a tradition of abstraction and a special artistry. Since Prophet Muhammed Mustafa (PBUH) has lead humanity to the zenith of glorification (as his name 'Mustafa' [rooted from the word 'ıstıfa' meaning purification and exhaltion] implies), the religion Islam that he brought (PBUH) should imply a special angle of view built on glorification and purification. For that reason, western arts such as painting, theater and novel have not been respected by Islamic communities. Instead, the Islamic community preferred exhibition arts (temaşa), miniature, calligraphy and metaphoric tales (masal). As Ismail Hakki Bursevi, writer of Ruhul Beyan, puts it: "Every being, with a special attribute has an orientation toward the Creator, and an individual relation with Prophethood. Every being expresses its specific existential needs and praises to Almighty Creator with its own orientation and relation.

Islamic civilization lends this unique approach to the artist so that he enjoys the world depending on his ability to distinguish and comprehend and then enjoy those praises and thanks. As a rule, the concrete is the tool for comprehension of absolute. This rule is pillar of metaphoric writings in Islamic literature. A witness without glorification and metaphoric intention results in unawareness of wisdom in creation.

Once, Prophet (PBUH) said on eternity: "There was only Allah, nothing else were present." After a while, when this hadith told to Ali, he replied: "Yes, it is just the same for the moment." With this reply, Ali implied that the very secret of eternity lies on every moment and that divine manifestations (tecelliyat) are hidden within the eternal knowledge of Creator. Indeed, the world owes its very existence to thes divine manifestations, whenever Creator withdraws all manifestations, the world would perish to its original state, namely to nonexistence (fena). Those manifestations are too fast and continuous so that we cannot feel any interval of nonexistence. We assume all ephemeral things as everlasting and see the world as if it is endless.

Therefore, the man's ability toward and enjoyment with artistry, rooting to enjoyment of divine embroideries and manifestations on the mirror of world, and as a reflection of Divine Attribute 'Mubdi' meaning 'Maker in beautiful manner' on the man himself, is a special gift and talent from Benevolence of Allah, also involving the fact:

Praise of the art refers to the artist. Denigration of the art refers to the artist.

Islamic art and ethic do not involve any so-called rivalry between man and Creator, forcing Michelangelo hammer his Moses sculpture's knee and shout 'Come on, talk!', implying the claim to reach the excellence of Divine Art.

Islam bestows on man the tools for comprehending variety of divine manifestations as the unity, which is both beginning and end of multiplicity around us. This comprehension brought about a sacred art confirming and reflecting the Divine Art manifested on the world. Islamic art, therefore, intends to reflect the unity ore oneness both hidden and manifested on the seeming multiplicity via many geometrical and mathematical symbols, forms and series, always referring the multiplicity to unity. Within this context, physics, chemistry, astronomy etc. become an expression of Divine Wisdom hidden and manifested in multiplicity. That is exactly why 'wisdom is mumin's lost propriety.'

Every action of man, indeed, is within the manifestations of Divine Art. Man cannot give any extra object to the creation. Every action represents the gift of 'ibda' from Mubdi 'Maker in beautiful manner'. Therefore, technology is not something man obtained in spite of Creator will, as western philosophy implies, it is a gift and another kind of Divine artistry executed by the hands of man. Therefore man should perform this special talent in the borders of worship. 

This shift in emphasis also points to the divergence of the Islamic and modern arts. Today's worsening world conditions and our imperiled future stems from this subtle and important difference. Nowadays, selfishness and rivalry hidden in western art manifest itself in global measures. We're beginning to learn the hard way that today's global ills are not cured by more and more science and technology. Technical solutions, in the absence of a right and just attitude toward world, only tend, over time, to escalate the problem. What is needed to break the vicious spiral is a world-wide change in attitudes, values, and artistic intention.

The Islamic outlook has promising qualifications in this direction. Instead of maintaining the traditional woe of lacking modern science and technology, we should be aware of the fact that lacking this brutal and devastating technology is an advantage for renewing our approach to world.

Modernity, by the time, ruined subtle details of Islamic outlook, as a result, the distinction between world and hereafter, relation between divine unity and manifest multiplicity faded away, and acts of appraisal, contemplation, glorification has been forgotten. Now, modernity imposes a value-free outlook, for the sake of so-called objectivity. This objectivity is a delusion, because it is against the order of world, and contradicts the true mind.

It is true that, in the past, Islamic civilisation has not surged the technology primarily. In fact, the reason was not laziness, it was respect for nature. As we put it before, act of contemplation does net necessitate technology primarily. But intention of consumption focuses primarily on technical solutions, apparatus, because those are tools for manipulation and consumption. As a matter of fact, Islamic scholars have not hesitated to make apparatus. In 17th century, Ebul Iz has made the first automatic machine in the world years before western counterparts. Hezarfen Ahmed Celebi, in 1632, has been successful in flying with an artificial wing system. Again Lagari Hasan Celebi also had been able to fly with turbine system. In 1720, during the Ottoman Empire Period, a submarine was invented, but it is used just for fun in some imperial ceremonies; it is forbidden to involve any imperial war. Ottoman Empire did not invent either flying soldier or bombing submarine. Because, in Islamic sense, contemplation is the primary act toward nature. Now, remember the modern civilisation with its aircraft, submarines and all other technological devices expelling deaths to humanity. This is because of intention of consumption.

While talking about Mosque (Camii), we should bear in mind this important divergence between Islamic and modern civilisation. In this context, we should have been ready below questions:

  • In a world of globalization and uni-culture, what kind of attitude should we have toward modern culture?
  • How can we define our 1500 years old cultural legend's today and future?
  • How can we articulate tradition to modernity in an aesthetical manner?

Those questions are of vital importance as far as Camii is concerned, because it is space for muslim's most important, most distinguished, and most aesthetical act, namely pray, representing Ascension to Almighty. We should urgently find answers to the questions in order to form a genuine Islamic Mosque architecture. Those answers will also make a firm ground to solutions of other problems in Islamic communities.

Mosque is the heart of Islamic civilization. Mosque represents the space for pray, the core and end results of all Islamic teachings. Since the invitation to the pray should be performed on higher point, minaret, representing 'ezan', invitation to pray, has bestowed upon minaret an utmost symbolic meaning. Therefore, minaret is already representing Islam, in a strict sense. So, if we decide on a real mosque architecture, namely representing Islam, implying an Islamic aura, we should hypothetically exclude minarets, then have a look at remaining building. Does this building is a reminder of Islam, for everybody, be muslim or non-muslim? The answer to this question is key to decide whether the building fits right architecture. If it reminds, for instance, a cultural centre, a theatre, congress hall etc., then it would represent a nonconcentrated and deviant design.

Our mission is neither to reject nor to ignore all modernity as a whole, nor to aspire it without any questioning and revising. We should pave the path to articulate traditional aesthetics and outlook to the modernity in an aesthetical manner and to transfer the divine wisdom and coherence into the modern designs. We should invent new synthesis without violating core of old tradition.                                        

Architecture is the mirror and formal language of a community. Whenever a chaotic changes occur in a community, it is firstly reflected to architecture. If a culture cannot renew itself, started to repeat itself, it will soon corrupt and fade away. Ottomanic civilisation corrupted because of wrong articulations with neighboring cultures.  Now Islamic world is not better than last days of Ottoman Empire. Cultural remnants in cities were destroyed, existing ones were intentionally ignored, cities as a whole lost their Muslim identity. Unfortunate to say, the very eye of all Islamic world, cities of Mecca and Medina, were also destroyed under irresistible pressure of modernity and economical priorities. Kaaba has lost its centralposition in Mecca, Green Dome was surrounded by concrete buildings in Madina.

Positioning and designing of mosques should be considered together. That means, renewal of mosques and their territory requires a extended city image, renewal of whole city.

Every initiation for two Holy Mosques should be executed in cooperative manner, just as Prophet (PBUH) did while putting the HacerulEsved to its place. This cooperation should be in both organization and financial support.

That's exactly how we can leave historical masterpiece for ummah's cooperation and also how we can build an extended intellectual territory and area of contemplation around two holy mosques.


1. Ayn-ı a'yân-ı mühendisîn : apple of the engineer's eye

  Zeyn-i erkân-ı müessisîn : treasure of the institutions' great men Mimâr-ı sultâni: Sultan's architect

  Muallim-i hâkâni: ruler's teacher

  Üstâd-ı esâtizetü'z-zemân : master of the era's masters

  Reîs-i cehâbizeti'd-devrân : chief of the age's artists

  Öklidisi'l asr ve'l-avan : Euclid of the age

  Mühendisan-I devran : engineer of the period

  Pesendîde-i cihan : darling of the universe

  Mîmar-ı bî-akran : architect without equal

  Sermîmarân: head architect

In old sources Mîmâr Sinan I referred to as Sinan Ağa or Koca Sinan : Great Sinan

In his wakf deed he is referred to as "El-mahfûf bi sunûf-i avâtıfi'l-meliki'l-mennân" (man surrounded by generous gifts of rulers) and "Sinan Ağa ibn-l Abdurrahman"

2. Metin Sözen and others, Türk Mimarisi’nin Gelişimi ve Mimar Sinan, İstanbul, 1975, p.159

3. ihsan Bingüler, Mimar Sinan ve Süleymaniye.

4.  M. Hilmi Şenalp, Mimar Sinan Kaynak Eserleri ve Çalisma Ortami, unpublished MA thesis, İstanbul,

5. Bistûn, name of the mountain Ferhad bore into.

6. The number necessary for a straight line to be divided in the most beautiful proportion (1.618) is called the golden mean. Because this proportion is found in all beautiful shapes in nature (especially the human body and plants) ,it is called the divine number.

7. Erzurumlu Ibrahim Hakkı. Marifetname,Trans. F.Meyan, 1981, Istanbul,p. 181

8. Muhyiddin-î Arabî ,Fusûs üI-Hikem. Trans. M.Nuri Gençosman,1971,istanbul,p.181

9. islam Ansiklopedisi, Kabe, Vol. 6,pp. 5,6

10. Abdülkerim Ceyli, İnsan-ı Kamil, Trans. A.Akçiçek, İstabul, 1974,pp.416,438

11. Arşın=75.774 cm.




Muharrem Hilmi Şenalp